grain size plant

rice | Description, History, Cultivation, & Uses | Britannica

Improvements are slowly taking place. The yield of milled rice is dependent on the size and shape of the grain, the degree of ripeness, and the extent of exposure to the sun. Some large mills, handling 500 to 1,000 tons of paddy daily, have specialized hulling plants with consequent smaller losses from broken grain.

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R I C E H U B

The rice plant has round and hollow stems, flat leaves, and panicles at the top of the plant. ... After fertilization, the ovary swells and the caryopsis develops until it reaches its maximum size after seven days. The grain (caryopsis) is first aqueous and then reaches a milky consistency, which is perceptible when the grain is squeezed. At ...

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Effect of substrate grain size on the growth and ...

However, the combined effects of grain size, dry bulk density, and total porosity on plant growth are not well understood even though the rapid establishment of seedling is important for plant survival and growth (Shaffer et al., 1990, Handley and Davy, 2002).

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Control of Grain Size and Weight by the GSK2 ... - Plant Cell

Regulation of grain size is crucial for improving crop yield and is also a basic aspect in developmental biology. However, the genetic and molecular mechanisms underlying grain size control in crops remain largely unknown despite their central importance. Here, we report that the MEI2-LIKE PROTEIN4 (OML4) encoded by the LARGE1 gene is phosphorylated by GLYCOGEN SYNTHASE KINASE2 (GSK2) and ...

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Details - Relationship among grain-size, plant communities ...

Relationship among grain-size, plant communities, and fluvial and eolian processes in a piedmont of the central Andes in Argentina By González Loyarte,María M

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Regulation of OsGRF4 by OsmiR396 controls grain size and ...

Dec 21, 2015· Duan, P. et al. SMALL GRAIN 1, which encodes a mitogen-activated protein kinase 4, influences grain size in rice. Plant J. 77, 547–557 (2014). CAS Article Google Scholar

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OsSPL18 controls grain weight and grain number in rice ...

1. Introduction. As one of the most important cereal crops in the word, rice provides calories for more than half of the global population. Rice yield is composed of several complex agronomic traits, including effective tillers per plant, grain number per panicle and grain weight (Xing and Zhang, 2010; Zuo and Li, 2014).In recent years, numerous genes related to these traits have been cloned.

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The PLATZ Transcription Factor GL6 Affects Grain Length ...

Grain size is one of the key determinants of grain yield. Although a number of genes that control grain size in rice ( Oryza sativa ) have been identified, the overall regulatory networks behind this process remain poorly understood. Here, we report the map-based cloning and functional characterization of the quantitative trait locus GL6, which encodes a plant-specific plant AT-rich sequence ...

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Control of grain size in rice.

Control of grain size in rice. Li N(1), Xu R(1), Duan P(1), Li Y(2). Author information: (1)State Key Laboratory of Plant Cell and Chromosome Engineering, CAS Center for Excellence in Molecular Plant Sciences, Institute of Genetics and Developmental Biology, Chinese Academy of …

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Rice Homeobox Protein KNAT7 Integrates ... - Plant Physiology

Rice KNAT7 affects grain size. A, Rice grains of the indicated plants. Bar = 5 mm. B to D, Measurement of the grain length, grain width, and grain weight of the indicated plants. Data represent the mean value ± sd (n ≥ 15 grains harvested from at least five plants), except in D, where data represent the mean value ± sd (n = 3 biological ...

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Science & Plants for Schools - Pollen Image Library Pollen ...

699 · Science & Plants for Schools - Pollen Image Library Pollen images in size order: Switch to …

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Natural variation in GS5 plays an important role in ...

plant science research. Grain size is a major determinant of grain yield in cereals and is a target trait for both domestication ... regulators of grain size, such that the wild-type alleles are ...

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Linking differential domain functions of the GS3 protein ...

Grain yield in many cereal crops is largely determined by grain size. Here we report the genetic and molecular characterization of GS3, a major quantitative trait locus for grain size. It functions as a neg-ative regulator of grain size and organ size. The wild-type isoform is composed of four putative domains: a plant-specific organ size

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(PDF) Control of grain size in rice - ResearchGate

Control of grain size by G pr otein signaling G protein signaling has been invol ved in a variety of growth and developmental processes in plants and animals.

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The PLATZ Transcription Factor GL6 Affects Grain Length ...

(4)National Center for Gene Research, Chinese Academy of Sciences Center for Excellence in Molecular Plant Sciences, Institute of Plant Physiology and Ecology, Shanghai Institutes for Biological Sciences, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Shanghai 2000233, China [email protected] Grain size is one of the key determinants of grain yield.

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Molecular Networks of Seed Size Control in Plants | Annual ...

The size of seeds affects not only evolutionary fitness but also grain yield of crops. Understanding the mechanisms controlling seed size has become an important research field in plant science. Seed size is determined by the integrated signals of maternal and zygotic tissues, which control the coordinated growth of the embryo, endosperm, and seed coat. Recent advances have identified several ...

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Activation of Big Grain1 significantly improves grain size ...

Sep 01, 2015· grain size; Big Grain1; auxin; biomass; grain yield; Because it is one of the most important staple food crops cultivated worldwide, improvement of grain yield is a major focus of rice-breeding programs ().Grain size is one of the determining factors of grain yield (2, 3).A number of quantitative trait loci (QTLs) controlling rice grain size have been identified in recent years (4 ...

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Maize - Wikipedia

Grain size is one of the most important components of grain yield and selecting large seeds has been a main target during plant domestication. Surprisingly, the grain of African cultivated rice ...

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The Spermine Synthase OsSPMS1 Regulates ... - Plant …

grain size, and grain yield per plant. The ratio of spermine to spermidine was significantly lower in the RNAi lines and consider - ably higher in the OE lines than in the wild type, suggesting that OsSPMS1 may function as a SPMS. S-Adenosyl-l-methionine is a common precursor of …

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OsVIN2 encodes a vacuolar acid invertase that affects ...

Grain size, a major determinant of rice yield, is influenced by many developmental and environmental factors. Sugar metabolism plays vital roles in plant development. However, the way in which sugar metabolism affects rice grain size remains largely elusive. In this study, we characterized the small grain-size rice mutant sgs1.

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Grain | Encyclopedia.com

grain / grān / • n. 1. wheat or any other cultivated cereal crop used as food. ∎ the seeds of such cereals: [as adj.] grain exports. 2. a single fruit or seed of a cereal: a few grains of corn. ∎ a small hard particle of a substance such as salt or sand: a grain of salt. ∎ the smallest possible quantity or amount of a quality: there wasn't a grain of truth in what he said. ∎ a ...

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OsSPL13 controls grain size in cultivated rice | Nature ...

Mar 07, 2016· Bin Han and colleagues present a genome-wide association analysis of grain size and shape in cultivated rice and identify a major locus for grain size encoding the …

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Control of grain size by G protein signaling in rice

Control of grain size by G protein signaling in rice FA Ran Xu1†,NaLi1† and Yunhai Li1,2* 1. State Key Laboratory of Plant Cell and Chromosome Engineering, CAS Center for Excellence in Molecular Plant Sciences, Institute of Genetics and Developmental Biology, the Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100101, China 2.

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A G-protein pathway determines grain size in rice | Nature ...

GS3-4OE produced even smaller plants and grain size with an average 19.10% reduction of grain length relative to the negative segregant, while GS3-1Ri resulted in an average 5.78% increase of ...

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The Rho-family GTPase OsRac1 controls rice grain size and ...

Aug 06, 2019· OsRac1 Modulates Rice Grain Size and Promotes Rice Yield. Given a role for Arabidopsis ROP2 in promoting the activation of TOR, a central regulator of growth (), we speculated that the overexpression of ROPs may improve rice plant growth and grain yield.We generated overexpression and CRISPR-Cas9 knockout lines for various OsROPs in the Nipponbare background …

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OsGASR9 positively regulates grain size and yield in rice ...

OsGASR9 positively regulates grain size and weight, and increases the yield production in the NIP background. • OsGASR9 may regulate plant height, grain size and yield through GA pathway and could have an application value in breeding. Abstract. The plant-specific gibberellic acid (GA)-stimulated transcript gene family is critical for plant ...

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Sorghum | Nutrition, Uses, & Description | Britannica

Sorghum, (Sorghum bicolor), also called great millet, Indian millet, milo, durra, orshallu, cereal grain plant of the grass family and its edible starchy seeds. The plant likely originated in Africa, where it is a major food crop, and has numerous varieties, including grain sorghums, used for food; grass sorghums, grown for hay and fodder; and ...

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A quantitative trait locus GW6 controls rice grain size ...

Grain size is one of the essential components determining rice yield and is a target for both domestication and artificial breeding. Gibberellins (GAs) are diterpenoid phytohormones that influence diverse aspects of plant growth and development.

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